, this "fool's mushroom" was documented in
Slovakia as well. In addition, the mushroom found
its way into the verses of Polish poet Vaclav
Potocki (1625-1699), who refers to its potential of
"causing foolishness much like opium does ".
Similarly, in England, John Parkinson's
"Theatricum Botanicum" (1640) includes details
about a 'foolish mushroom ".
The Austrian colloquial expression "He
ate those madness-inducing mushrooms" refers to
states of mental confusion.
Historic source materials such as these
are scarce and widely scattered. Undoubtedly, they
refer to psychotropic mushrooms, but lack
sufficient information to permit clear identification
of a specific species. However, considering the
habitats and occurrence of Psilocybe semilanceata
and Psilocybe bohemica, these two species are
among the most likely candidates (see page 16 ff.).
It is remarkable that these historic portrayals
revolve around just one aspect of the mushrooms'
overall effects: the occasional semi-schizophrenic
reaction which can at times be quite dramatic.
None of these accounts reflect a distinct
appreciation of mushrooms in the tradition of the
Mexican Indians ("teonanacatl" = flesh of the
Between Reverence and Fear
By contrast, in Europe we find that the
symptoms of mushroom intoxication have always
been compared to symptoms of mental illness.
Such cross-cultural differences in value judgments
can be explained in terms of two concepts
introduced by R.G. Wasson and his wife:
mycophilia and mycophobia. This distinction subdivides
cultures with different traditional attitudes
towards mushrooms into two groups. For instance,
an entrenched dislike for mushrooms (mycophobia)
in Britain indicates traditional beliefs vastly
different from those found in Slavic countries,
where mushrooms are generally cherished
(mycophilia). The origins and evolution of such
diverging attitudes remain lost in the shadows of
The development of early cultural taboos
and prohibitions against psychotropic mushrooms
may be the root cause of enduring mycophobic
behavior. On the other hand, it is possible that,
thousands of years ago, the process of harvesting
mushrooms as a food source caused alarming
clusters of regionally isolated cases of fatal
mushroom poisonings. Such experiences may well
have seeded a potent and lasting aversion towards
an entire country's mycoflora.
Similarly, the mycophilia typical of
ancient Mexican cultures goes hand in hand with a
general social acceptance of the effects of
Psilocybe mushrooms and their established ritual
usages. Among Mexican Indian tribes, the effects
of psilocybin have never been causally linked to
any type of known mental illness. It is interesting
to note that the Indians of Mexico were the only
Indians in the Americas who also harvested a large
number of mushroom species for food.
Unfortunately, our current socio-political
climate is - strongly biased against newly
discov In 1979, J.J. McRoach, a former candidate for the Australian Marijuana Party, described one of his experiences in New South Wales No grease in this restaurant - instead brightly
painted walls with lots of sunflowers and colorful cushions......all very cool, very laid-back. Walking into the kitchen to suss food situation. Amiable freak cum cook loads me up with a
couple of salads. What brings you to Mullumbimby he asks.
The mushrooms, Ive come for the mushrooms.
firstname.lastname@example.org Frbarros Mail Telepac Pt . For
that reason, freeze-dried samples for biochemical
analysis are stored at -10°C prior to alkaloid
extractions or chromatography testing. In addition
to the reports from Finland, investigators in North
America have noted that psilocybin's decay rate is
slowest in Psilocybe semilanceata, compared to
(1) R = H2P03
(2) R = H
Figure 19 - Structural formulas for
psilocybin (1) and psilocin (2).
Figure 20 - Distribution pattern of Psilocybe semilanceata in Germany and adjacent areas.
Locations are indicated by black dots.
PSILOCYBE CYANESCENS - POTENT MUSHROOMS
GROWING ON WOOD DEBRIS
At least one other Psilocybe species in
addition to Psilocybe semilanceata is known to
exist in Europe. At this point, I must emphasize
that the differentiation of single species within
the Psilocybe genus is subject to considerable
controversy among eminent taxonomists. For
example, there are different methods of
distinguishing the Hypholoma genus from the
The Widespread Distribution
of Psilocybe cyanescens
While Psilocybe semilanceata is a species
that has long been clearly defined and is well
known by this name, there are, according to
Krieglsteiner, other strongly bluing mushrooms
that can be described as belonging to the
"Psilocybe cyanescens complex". These are all
mushrooms that grow on raw compost and plant
In accordance with current states of
knowledge, the following names in the literature
are merely synonyms for Psilocybe cyanescens
Wakefield emend. Krieglsteiner:
different herbariums. However, the microscopic
data pertaining to the Psilocybe species are poorly
delineated and oftentimes overlap. It is therefore
imperative that additional mycological studies of
Psilocybe cyanescens be performed. To this end,
fresh mushroom samples from various European
locations should be used, and biochemical methods
must be included in the investigation. Guzman's
division of Psilocybe cyanescens by geographic
area, however, definitely turned out to be
inaccurate. According to his system, -North Africa
was home to Psilocybe mairei, while Psilocybe
cyanescens were found in England and Holland and
Psilocybe serbica supposedly grew in Serbia and
Bohemia. The geographic distribution of the entire
species seems to cover a vast area, with variations
along climate and terrain at locations where samples
were collected. Such disparate morphologies are to
be expected when dealing with "young" species,
that is, species that have not yet firmly established
themselves and are still expanding into new
Figure 7 (p. 14) displays locations in
Europe and North Africa where samples of
Psilocybe cyanescens have been found.
- Hypholoma cyanescens R. Maire
- Hypholoma coprinifacies (Rolland ss.
- Geophila cyanescens (R. Maire) Kuhner &
- Psilocybe serbica Moser & Horak
- Psilocybe mairei Singer
email@example.com Adelaide Bluestonerecruitment Com Au
The majority of adverse physical effects or negative psychological reactions produced by "magic mushrooms" generally result from inappropriate set and expectation, or because of improper dosage, which may vary considerably among consumers, different mushroom species, or even within an individual species. The question of dosage is often confused by the variation in the source of the hallucinogenic mushroom species which is consumed. For example, Psilocybe cubensis, when picked and eaten from its natural dung (manure) habitat, produces a relatively mild mindaltering experience, which is evident from the large amounts of fresh specimens needed to achieve a threshold experience. However when grown in vitro (indoor laboratory cultivation and/or illicit cultivation), Psilocybe cubensis apparently can produce a more potent strain capable of inducing a very intense visual, sometimes quite disturbing, experience. This dosage assumes that the consumption of 1 to 3 gm of dried material would be too low if the mushroom specimen came from a wild source. This low potency for Psilocybe cubensis has been confirmed by research scientists Margot & Watling, (1981), who were surprised by the comparatively small amounts of psilocybin and psilocin which they extracted from wild specimens collected from five different locations in Australia. This suggests that a much larger dose would be required to produce significant hallucinations. It is possible that the chemicals most likely degenerated between the time that they were harvested and the time of analysis. However, it should be noted that a strain of Psilocybe cubensis producing different flushes (harvests) will vary somewhat in potency between flushes. Infoolimppluscomualocnl
t resume his affection for his son.
Something of a subtle nature was therefore resolved upon, such as would disorder his
brain and require time to kill. Oxford translation, Annals, Book xn, Chap. 66
There was only one poison available to the ancients that would fulfill Agrippinas
requirements - the poison of the deadly anianita. Infogainlicomtw