In folklore, in linguistics, and in the details of contemporary usage,
there must be much evidence concerning it that we now ignore. The majority of adverse physical effects or negative psychological reactions produced by "magic mushrooms" generally result from inappropriate set and expectation, or because of improper dosage, which may vary considerably among consumers, different mushroom species, or even within an individual species. The question of dosage is often confused by the variation in the source of the hallucinogenic mushroom species which is consumed. For example, Psilocybe cubensis, when picked and eaten from its natural dung (manure) habitat, produces a relatively mild mindaltering experience, which is evident from the large amounts of fresh specimens needed to achieve a threshold experience. However when grown in vitro (indoor laboratory cultivation and/or illicit cultivation), Psilocybe cubensis apparently can produce a more potent strain capable of inducing a very intense visual, sometimes quite disturbing, experience. This dosage assumes that the consumption of 1 to 3 gm of dried material would be too low if the mushroom specimen came from a wild source. This low potency for Psilocybe cubensis has been confirmed by research scientists Margot & Watling, (1981), who were surprised by the comparatively small amounts of psilocybin and psilocin which they extracted from wild specimens collected from five different locations in Australia. This suggests that a much larger dose would be required to produce significant hallucinations. It is possible that the chemicals most likely degenerated between the time that they were harvested and the time of analysis. However, it should be noted that a strain of Psilocybe cubensis producing different flushes (harvests) will vary somewhat in potency between flushes.
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The classification of these synonyms is
particularly difficult, because the mycologists
involved provided detailed descriptions for
isolated collections of fruiting bodies only,
followed by comparisons with mushrooms
found at other locations, using dates provided in
the literature. Under the best of circumstances,
an analysis was performed on dried samples
Spores Introduced From Overseas?
In this section I would like to discuss
several aspects of the bluing Psilocybe mushrooms.
Detailed information about several isolated sample
collections has been presented by Krieglsteiner.
A description of any mushroom species
becomes valid only after a Latin diagnosis of the
collected sample has been published in a
mycological journal, along with distinctive
characteristics in relation to other species.
In 1946 Wakefield described as Psilocybe
cyanescens Wakefield a sample of bluing darkspored
mushrooms collected at the botanical
gardens in Kew, England. It had been suggested
that those mushrooms occurred adventitiously,
that is, that the spores had been imported from
overseas together with other plant materials. The
presence of such mushrooms in botanical gardens
had been observed quite frequently, and such
imports are likely whenever the mushroom in
question has never before been found in
surrounding areas. The possible importation of
Gymnopilus purpuratus is described elsewhere
(see Chapter 3.5).
The mushrooms displayed a much more
intense blue staining reaction than Psilocybe
semilanceata. They were observed growing on
small pieces of wood in the forested areas of Kew
Gardens during the fall season for several years.
Among the mushrooms' most notable features are
their undulating, twisted caps. Guzman believes
that specimens collected in British Columbia and
the Pacific Northwest of the United States
(Northern California, Oregon, Washington) are
identical to those found in Kew Gardens (see
Figure 24). Indeed, all of the macroscopic and
some microscopic descriptions and photographs
match the mushrooms found in England. However,
conclusive proof of identity can be provided only
by results from DNA analyses and cross-breeding
experiments with single-spore mycelia. I will
elaborate on this method in a later section.
In 1975, fruiting bodies of this species
were also discovered in Holland. Additional bluing
mushrooms growing gregariously on grass and
decaying reeds were found in the Jura Mountains
of Switzerland in 1972 (MTB 8511). Other
samples are known to have been collected in the
Steiermark region of Austria in the fall of 1976, as
well as on the Mediterranean island of Corsica in
1972 and 1984.
On several occasions, a number of
fruiting bodies classifed as Psilocybe cyanescens
were also discovered in Germany (see Figure 23, p.
More elaborate descriptions of several such
collections are provided below:
On October 31, 1983 considerable
quantities of fruiting bodi
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20 H. F. Fraser and D. E. Rosenberg, Studies on the human addiction liability of 2'-hydroxy-5,9-dimethyl-2-(3,3-dimethylallyl)6,7-
benzomorphan (WIN 20,228): A weak narcotic antagonist, J. Pharm, Exptl. Therap., 143, 149 (1964). How Mushrooms Grow Growing Mushrooms At Home
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The precise meaning of the mushrooms
consumed on this annual occasion survives in mens memories in southern
Bohemia, near Tabor, where the mushrooms are served with millet and the
dish is called kuba or manas. The word ntanas means a lusty male, and he who eats
of the dish is imbued with extra virility for the coming year. Info Dracena Sp Gov Br Loc Nl
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