ile this is the exception, it
may well be a representation of the so-called
In Nature, these colors are associated
with the bluing Psilocybe and Panaeolus species.
These mushrooms could have grown on several
substrates, such as fallen twigs and raw compost,
grounds littered with the remains from evergreen
and deciduous trees or dung left behind by pasture
animals. Among the mushroom species that may
have grown in the area thousands of years ago, the
most likely candidates are relatives of Psilocybe
cubensis and Panaeolus cyanescens (dunginhabiting
species), Psilocybe semilanceata (a
nitrophilic species) as well as Psilocybe
cyanescens, a species that grows on top of raw
Considering the impressive nature of
existing historic evidence, the obvious question
would seem to be whether any of these species can
currently be found in Africa, where the cradle of
mankind is located.
African Species Related to
Interestingly, on October 24, 1912, R.
Maire first collected several specimens of bluing,
dark-spored mushrooms which he found growing
on raw compost underneath some cedar trees in
Algeria, at Chrea Pass near the city of Blida south
of Algiers. He collected additional specimens every
year up until 1926 and published his findings in
1928, naming the species Hypholoma cyanescens
Later on, G. Malencon classified a number
of similar specimens from his own samples
collected in the Central Atlas Mountains (Morocco)
as belonging to this species. In 1973, Singer then
classified the species as Psilocybe mairei Sing.
Krieglsteiner, however, considered this species to
be identical with Psilocybe cyanescens Wakefield,
as found in Europe. Thus, bluing Psilocybe species
can still be found in Africa today.
In his monograph on Panaeolus
mushrooms from the 1960's, Ola'h mentions two
Panaeolus species that are strongly psychoactive:
- Panaeolus africanus Ola'h and
- Panaeolus tropicales Ola'h
There are also accounts from Africa about
typical hallucinatory intoxications, caused by
mistaken identification of a yellow Stropharia
species as a culinary mushroom. In 1945, E.R.
Cullinan and D. Henry described 22 cases in
Nairobi, which occurred in July of that same year.
The symptoms started one hour after
ingestion of the mushrooms, peaked within three
hours and then persisted for 24 to 48 () hours.
Symptoms consisted of emotional imbalance, fits of
mirthful and irresponsible laughter alternating
with depressive moods, during which patients felt
they wanted to die. Patients were unable to sleep,
due to nightmarish feelings that descended when
they closed their eyes... They remained conscious
throughout the experience and their speech, while
somewhat uncontrolled, was rational.
In 1957, A.D. Charters reported additional
cases of intoxication from Nairobi: On May 18,
1949, a man and his wife - both Europeans who
resided in Nakuru, ate generous portio
Mind-altering (psilocybine containing) mushrooms have been traditionally used in religious healing and curing ceremonies by native peoples in Mesoamerica for more than 3,000 years. Today, the recreational use of hallucinogenic fungi by Westerners is widespread, especially in various regions of the United States, Canada, Mexico, Caribbean, Great Britain, Europe (especially in the Netherlands), Scandinavia, South America, Southeast Asia, India, Bali, Samoa; Australia and New Zealand. The modern, non-traditional use of
hallucinogenic mushrooms has been stimulated, by media reports in newspapers, magazines, word-of-mouth communication, the
World Wide Web and Internet, and also by the scholarly and popular journal publications of the renown ethnomycologist R. Gordon
Wasson, (Harvard psychologist Timothy Leary, traveler Jeremy Sanford, health guru Andrew Weil, and others (see Allen , Merlin &Jansen, 1991).This field guide reviews the history of both the accidental and purposeful use of psychoactive mushrooms in Australia and New
Zealand. Information in this guide has been gathered from personal experiences in Australia by the author and from reports in the scientific literature, news items appearing in the popular press, and personal communications with Australian and New Zealand (NZ)
professionals (Unsigned 1970; O'Neill, 1986).
mail jsczfda.gov.cn loc:NL Mail Hallmarkpower Co Uk
In the main they were not copying each other, and they probably
had the important facts right.
Claudius was exceedingly fond of mushrooms boleti, and a plausible tradition
has it that his favorite kind was what we know today as the amanita caesarea.
The dish of mushrooms that he ate on the fateful day consisted of poisoned, not
On this all three of the ancient historians agree, in different
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And right here we come upon another of the strange parallels in fungal
imagery that recur between peoples geographically and culturally remote from
one another. We have seen that both the Russians and Catalans speak of certain
lactarii as the rusty ones. Now we observe that the Basques of Guipuzcoa,
Upper Navarre, and the Labourd refer to the dun-colored cep as the white
mushroom, just as the Russians do, the Basque term being ondo zuri. Mailmarumeicojp
mail jsczfda.gov.cn loc:NL vegetarian-recipes