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3,000 ft), with one location at 1,400 m (4,200 ft)
above sea level. According to these distribution
patterns, the species does not appear to favor a
specific altitude. As of 1986, 44 locations in the
former Czechoslovakia had been logged, yielding a
total of 54 samples. In contrast to other mushroom
species, such as the cultivated commercial white
mushrooms (Agaricus bisporis), Psilocybe
semilanceata will fruit in a comparatively much
wider range of temperatures.
While Psilocybe semilanceata is common
throughout Germany, the species does not appear to
favor specific areas where it occurs in marked
abundance or density. One obvious limitation on the
growth of the species is the limited presence of
fertilizer in areas that would otherwise be excellent
locations for the mushroom to thrive in. Most likely
that is why the species has not expanded into new
habitats in Germany over the last few decades.
Descriptions of frequency of occurrence in the older
literature are comparable to contemporary
On occasion, however, Psilocybe
semilanceata can produce a huge number of fruiting
bodies at certain locations where conditions for
growth are excellent.
Between a Creek and a Marshlands Pond....
8'/2 Inches Tall !
At this point, I would like to provide some
more details about two marshlands locations, where
we have conducted mycological field research over
the course of several years.
At the first location, the fruiting bodies
grew in a shallow grass valley among very tall grass
on slightly acidic soil. This grassy area was
a forest clearing between a creek and a marshlands
pond. In areas exposed to direct sunlight,
temperatures were significantly higher than they
were in surrounding areas, a phenomenon that
persisted during the fall season. Deer droppings
contributed to frequent fertilization of the area. The
fruiting bodies from the first batch of mushrooms
found in this location had stems of up to 81
(21.5 cm) tall, due to very tall grass in the area. The
caps of the mushrooms were so tiny, that clear
identification of the species as Psilocybe
semilanceata was not immediately possible. Even
though a bluing reaction was present,
chromatography testing was needed to confirm the
species. Subsequent discoveries, however, yielded
samples that could be identified on the spot based
on their morphological characteristics. We were
able to collect 30 to 60 specimens at this location
every fall for three consecutive years.
Unfortunately, the location was destroyed soon
afterwards, due to man-made modifications to the
marshlands and construction of an access road.
During the same year, we discovered a
second location within about half a mile of the first
one. The area was very large, a former cow pasture
which had been grazed regularly. It was located
next to a creek that saturated the soil completely.
Today, sheep occasionally graze the area and deer
droppings are commonly found in Although Dr. Stocks suggested that the hallucinogenic effects of these mushrooms were more potent
than either lysergic acid diethylamide LSD or mescaline , it should be pointed out that many
users of these drugs prefer the natural experience of the mushrooms since this has a shorter duration of
3 to 6 hours as opposed to the 8 to 12 hour experience of LSD, mescaline or MDA.
Stockss paper on mushroom poisoning presents us with two case histories of psilocybian intoxication.
Mail Goldensouth.Com.Cn Loc:Nl Mail Mirimdoce Sc Gov Br Loc Nl Some say that it was his taster, the eunuch Halotus, as he was banqueting on
the Citadel with the priests others that at a family dinner Agrippina served the drug to
him with her own hand in mushrooms, a dish of which he was extravagantly fond.
Suetonius places the poisoned mushrooms only in his second version, but mushrooms
could have been the vehicle that Halotus used too, and this may be implied.
Dio Cassius comes down to us in a Greek summary.
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know the mushrooms, not by dint of study as the mycologists do, but
as part of our ancient heritage, imbibed with our mothers milk. A Russian
nursery rime, tenderly humorous, tells of the mother who sends out her toddler
to look for the borovik. Each time he returns with the wrong kind, perhaps a
good kind, perhaps bad, but never the borovik. Each time she repeats her previous
instructions, adding however an additional line of descriptive advice. Mushroom Grow Kit Grow Kit Mushroom
e bohemica Sebek
The classification of these synonyms is
particularly difficult, because the mycologists
involved provided detailed descriptions for
isolated collections of fruiting bodies only,
followed by comparisons with mushrooms
found at other locations, using dates provided in
the literature. Under the best of circumstances,
an analysis was performed on dried samples
Spores Introduced From Overseas
In this section I would like to discuss
several aspects of the bluing Psilocybe mushrooms.
Detailed information about several isolated sample
collections has been presented by Krieglsteiner.
A description of any mushroom species
becomes valid only after a Latin diagnosis of the
collected sample has been published in a
mycological journal, along with distinctive
characteristics in relation to other species.
In 1946 Wakefield described as Psilocybe
cyanescens Wakefield a sample of bluing darkspored
mushrooms collected at the botanical
gardens in Kew, England. It had been suggested
that those mushrooms occurred adventitiously,
that is, that the spores had been imported from
overseas together with other plant materials. The
presence of such mushrooms in botanical gardens
had been observed quite frequently, and such
imports are likely whenever the mushroom in
question has never before been found in
surrounding areas. The possible importation of
Gymnopilus purpuratus is described elsewhere
(see Chapter 3.5).
The mushrooms displayed a much more
intense blue staining reaction than Psilocybe
semilanceata. They were observed growing on
small pieces of wood in the forested areas of Kew
Gardens during the fall season for several years.
Among the mushrooms' most notable features are
their undulating, twisted caps. Guzman believes
that specimens collected in British Columbia and
the Pacific Northwest of the United States
(Northern California, Oregon, Washington) are
identical to those found in Kew Gardens (see
Figure 24). Indeed, all of the macroscopic and
some microscopic descriptions and photographs
match the mushrooms found in England. However,
conclusive proof of identity can be provided only
by results from DNA analyses and cross-breeding
experiments with single-spore mycelia. I will
elaborate on this method in a later section.
In 1975, fruiting bodies of this species
were also discovered in Holland. Additional bluing
mushrooms growing gregariously on grass and
decaying reeds were found in the Jura Mountains
of Switzerland in 1972 (MTB 8511). Other
samples are known to have been collected in the
Steiermark region of Austria in the fall of 1976, as
well as on the Mediterranean island of Corsica in
1972 and 1984.
On several occasions, a number of
fruiting bodies classifed as Psilocybe cyanescens
were also discovered in Germany (see Figure 23, p.
More elaborate descriptions of several such
collections are provided below:
On October 31, 1983 considerable
quantities of fruiting bodi Mail Frankston Vic G Loc Nl
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