3,000 ft), with one location at 1,400 m (4,200 ft)
above sea level. According to these distribution
patterns, the species does not appear to favor a
As of 1986, 44 locations in the
former Czechoslovakia had been csbeautyacademywrexham.co.uk
mail logged, yielding a
total of 54 samples. In contrast to other mushroom
species, such as the cultivated commercial white
mushrooms (Agaricus bisporis), Psilocybe
semilanceata will fruit in a comparatively much
wider range of temperatures.
While Psilocybe semilanceata is common
throughout Germany, the species does not appear to
favor specific areas where it occurs in marked
abundance or density.
One obvious limitation on the
growth of the species is the
mail customwood.co.za loc:NL limited presence of
fertilizer in areas that would otherwise be excellent
locations for the mushroom to thrive in. Most likely
that is why the species has not expanded into new
habitats in Germany over the last few decades.
Descriptions of frequency of occurrence in the older
literature are comparable to contemporary
On occasion, however, Psilocybe
semilanceata can produce a huge number of fruiting
bodies at certain locations where conditions for
growth are excellent.
Between a Creek and a Marshlands Pond....
8'/2 Inches Tall !
At this point, I would like to provide some
more details about two marshlands locations, where
we have conducted mycological field research over
the course of several years.
At the first location, the fruiting bodies
grew in a shallow grass valley among very tall grass
on slightly acidic soil. This grassy area was
a forest clearing between a creek and a marshlands
In areas exposed to direct sunlight,
temperatures were significantly higher than they
were in surrounding areas, a phenomenon that
persisted during the fall season.
contributed to frequent fertilization of the area. The
fruiting bodies from the first batch of mushrooms
found in this location had stems of up to 81
5 cm) tall, due to very tall grass in the area. The
caps of the mushrooms were so tiny, that clear
identification of the species as Psilocybe
semilanceata was not immediately possible.
though a bluing reaction was present,
chromatography testing was needed Mailcarklipscomaulocnl to confirm the
Subsequent discoveries, however, yielded
samples that could be identified on the spot based
on their morphological characteristics.
able to collect 30 to 60 specimens at this location
every fall for three consecutive years.
Unfortunately, the location was destroyed soon
afterwards, due to man-made modifications to the
marshlands and construction of an access road.
During the same year, we discovered a
second location within about half a mile of the first
The area was very large, a former cow pasture
which had been grazed regularly. It was located
next to a creek that saturated the soil completely.
Today, sheep occasionally graze the area and deer
droppings are commonly found in
���� Towards the identification of alcalo Of
���� Early work destiny S identify alcalo of in Amanita were r alis s by Schmiedeberg and Koppe in 1869 shows rent a parasympathomim tique de l extract Amanita capable d&----New Block----39;arr ter the heart of frog in diastole. This is however only in 1931 that K Gl, Duisberg and Erxleben isol The rent for the first muscarine First time and it was not until more than twenty years for Obtain pure.
mail akatonbo.com.vn Mail Mesas Gen Tr Loc Nl
Furthermore, the toxicity of fresh muscarine is exaggerated
the chances were excellent that Harrison would survive an uncooked
dose. Lathom should have used amanitine, not muscarine - the amanita phalloides,
not the amanita muscaria - and for informed readers, his execution was
a painful miscarriage of justice, a tragic sequel to an incompetent performance
by Defense Counsel.
Miss Sayers and Mr. Eustace used, or misused, a genuine mushroom.
mail akatonbo.com.vn Infomaileasytradecomtwlocnl
mail casabranca.sp.gov.br loc:NL
a have been reported from
the following countries: Finland, Norway,
Sweden, Denmark, Germany, Switzerland,
Austria, The Netherlands, Belgium, France,
Russia, Poland, the former Czechoslovakia,
Hungary, Romania, Scotland, England, Wales,
Italy and Spain.
Unfortunately, there are no comprehensive
maps detailing the species's
distribution pattern. Traditionally, mycologists
have often neglected relatively tiny species, such
as Psilocybe semilanceata, that tend to share their
habitats with other, more prominent species. The
sarcastic phrase "The mushrooms occur in
abundance wherever mycologists abound" is
particularly pertinent in reference to the Psilocybe
species. Prior to the discovery of psilocybin, the
Psilocybe genus languished in the literature,
shrouded in obscurity. To this day, few
189. Psilocybe semilanceata Fr. Worthless
The cap is uniformly conic to bell-shaped, with a pointy or obtuse center forming
an almost wart-like protrusion; initially, caps are often taller than they are wide, margins
are bent and curved inward; later on, width of cap is 1.5-4 cm. Hygrophanous; coloration
is a dirtyish olive-brown when wet, with translucent striate margins; at the center,
coloration is ocher or greenish-yellow against an overall shade of smudgy pale yellow and
oftentimes some greenish stains; only the margins are banded by a darkcolored, watery
stripe around the edge. No stripes or banding evident when mushrooms are completely
dried. Lacking a veil, caps are thin-fleshed, bald, with an easily separable pellicle that
remains gelatinous-sticky for a long time, turning shiny when dry.
Gills are olive brown to blackish purple brown in color, with the edges often
remaining white, gill spacing is quite crowded; gill attachment is either roughly linear or
mostly adnexed; up to 3.5 mm wide; attached at the stem only, fully detached later on.
Spores are elongated to ellipitical in shape, smooth and large, measuring 12-16 u
by 6-8,u. Color of spore dust is blackish purple brown.
Stem is very slender, almost uniformly thin and always twisted, 6-12 cm long and
1.25-2 mm thick, yellowish or whitish in color; areas subjected to pressure develop bluishgreen
stains. Stems are silky smooth and roughly at the center, cortinate fibrils appear like
remnants of a veil, which is brittle and lined with a white fibrous cord of wool-like
When dry, the flesh of the cap is colored pale yellow, while the stem's flesh is
ocher brown in color, especially towards the bottom. It is odorless and its flavor is mild.
The mushroom grows from August to October, frequently in gregarious clusters, and can
be found in pastures and along roadways, growing on dung that has undergone complete
decomposition. It is not a particularly rare species.
Figure 11(above) This excellent description of Psilocybe semilanceata by Michael & Schulz
(1927) is shown here as originally published in German, with an English translation.
Mycologists sp Mailgrandrealcomcn
The majority of adverse physical effects or negative psychological reactions produced by "magic mushrooms" generally result from inappropriate set and expectation, or because of improper dosage, which may vary considerably among consumers, different mushroom species, or even within an individual species. The question of dosage is often confused by the variation in the source of the hallucinogenic mushroom species which is consumed. For example, Psilocybe cubensis, when picked and eaten from its natural dung (manure) habitat, produces a relatively mild mindaltering experience, which is evident from the large amounts of fresh specimens needed to achieve a threshold experience. However when grown in vitro (indoor laboratory cultivation and/or illicit cultivation), Psilocybe cubensis apparently can produce a more potent strain capable of inducing a very intense visual, sometimes quite disturbing, experience. This dosage assumes that the consumption of 1 to 3 gm of dried material would be too low if the mushroom specimen came from a wild source. This low potency for Psilocybe cubensis has been confirmed by research scientists Margot & Watling, (1981), who were surprised by the comparatively small amounts of psilocybin and psilocin which they extracted from wild specimens collected from five different locations in Australia. This suggests that a much larger dose would be required to produce significant hallucinations. It is possible that the chemicals most likely degenerated between the time that they were harvested and the time of analysis. However, it should be noted that a strain of Psilocybe cubensis producing different flushes (harvests) will vary somewhat in potency between flushes. Mailgrandrealcomcn
mail gardenworld.co.za loc:NL Psychedelic