It is just as plausible, however, to suggest
that the hallucinogen of choice among early
Nordic cultures was Psilocybe semilanceata, a
mushroom species quite common in Norway.
Neither Amanita muscaria nor Psilocybe
semilanceata are generally known to cause states
of intense rage. However, given the historic
context, it is possible that, at the time, people had
already begun to internalize negatively biased
distortions and the demonization of psychoactive
mushrooms and their effects, in order to justify the
creation of new laws intended to destroy repulsive
pagan customs such as the ritual use of mindaltering
It is important to note the existence of
ancient Northern European rock drawings that
depict various mushroom themes, along with the
discovery of bronze-age vessels decorated with
mushroom-related artwork. The drawings often
include renditions of zoomorphic entities as well
as mushrooms. Significantly, they predate any
reports and speculations about the Berserkers by
over 2,000 years.
These ancient images suggest the
evolution of early European mushroom cults - a
cultural practice that most likely vanished during
the early Iron Age, as did many other customs and
social practices from that era. Still, the discovery
of ancient Northern European mushroom cults is a
powerful piece of evidence supporting the notion
that psychoactive mushroom usage has been
continuous throughout history.
In addition, a traditional Swedish custom
has survived to the present day, revealing an early
knowledge of a certain mushroom believed to
evoke "visions of spirit entities". As part of
summer solstice celebrations, a poisonous
mushroom species ("Baran") was cast into the
bonfires. Even though nothing is known about this
fungus today, the ritual burning of a poisonous
mushroom was intended to weaken the powers of
goblins and other evil spirits. The mushrooms
were viewed as symbolic incarnations of noxious
spirits. The mushrooms' ritualistic destruction by
fire thus destroyed the powers of evil and
mischievous spirits. The assumption that some
mushrooms are physical links to the intangible
powers of the spirit world may have evolved from
ancient fragments of knowledge about the
psychoactivity of specific types of mushrooms.
There are a number of written reports
about psychotropic mushrooms that date back to
the late Middle Ages. While this collection of
documents includes a variety of different sources
from several countries, they provide remarkably
similar descriptions of psychoactive mushrooms
and the general nature of their effects.
Love Potions Brewed from Bolond Gomba
Clusius (1525-1609), for example, the
great physician and botanist, discovered "bolond
gomba" in Hungary. This mushroom was known
under the German name "Narrenschwamm"
("fool's mushrooms"). It was used in rural areas,
where it was processed into love potions by wise
men or "javas asszony". At about the same
time Das hier aufgezeichnete Verfahren besteht im wesentlichen
aus vier Hauptschritten. Schritt für Schritt wird beschrieben,
wie man innerhalb von sechs Wochen voll ausgereifte Pilze aus
Sporen heranzieht. Zuerst wird das Auffinden des Pilzes behandelt,
die Gewinnung und Keimung der Sporen und wie man einen
reinen Myzel-Stamm bzw. einen einzelnen Pilzfaden (= Hyphe)
isoliert, den man zuvor aus den Sporen gewonnen hat. Der
nächste Schritt besteht in der Vermehrung des Mycels auf Agar,
einem gelantineartigen Nährstoff, um das Myzel dann 3. auf einem
sterilisierten, mit Pilzfäden beimpften Nährboden aus ganzen
Roggenkörnem in größerem Umfang zu produzieren. Beim vierten
und letzten Schritt wird das auf Roggen gezogene Myzel abgedeckt,
d.h. mit Erde bedeckt, ein Prozeß, der dann zur Fruchtung
= Pilzproduktion führt. Dieses Buch beschreibt jeden dieser
Schritte im Detail und kann von jedem in die Praxis umgesetzt
werden, der fähig ist zu lesen und diese Anweisungen sorgfältig
zu beachten, vorausgesetzt er kann Sporen oder Gewebeproben
von Stropharia cubensis beschaffen.
"*@tanesco.co.tz" Apicmail2 Lge Com Owa This raises the
question whether the English toadstool was not once the specific name of the
fly amanita, just as in the Haute Saone Eugene Rolland reports bo as a designation
for any gilled fungus, and in the Loire, botet, both presumably meaning,
by way of toad, the Satanic fungus.
Texas Psychedelic Mushrooms
Panaeolus Cinctulus In Iowa It is wise then, to
Panaeolus Cinctulus In Iowa smoke marijuana in natural areas whenever possible, so as to enhance the
availability of chi when it is drawn into the body during the high.
What to Do
After taking a puff, focus on your energy level. One of the first things you�ll notice is that it increases
after smoking marijuana, especially if you smoke in an environment that is filled with chi, such as
woods, beach or other wild area. Stay focused on your energy level while in the high. Infoimitcoth
ure of Psilocybe semilanceata
(with sclerotia formation).
Figure 48 - Inocybe aeruginascens on grassy soil
Figure 49 - Psilocybe cubensis on horse manure and rice.
portions of mycelia whose texture is somewhat
like wool. The kind of viruses known to appear in
champignon cultures - where they have already
caused a lot of damage - have so far not been
found in cultures of the Psilocybe and Panaeolus
It is safe to say that we currently know a
great deal about the nutritional requirements of
Psilocybe cubensis. To a lesser extent, such
information is available about other species as
well. Armed with this knowledge, future
researchers may well discover new insights into
physiology of these species, as well as the
biochemical changes that occur during fruiting.
In my experiments, it has already been
established that the process of differentiation
whereby mycelia are transformed into sclerotia or
fruiting bodies is linked to increased production
of psilocybin as well as psilocin, especially in
Due to the relatively complex
methodology and the type of equipment needed to
isolate and maintain sterile cultures, it appears
unlikely that cultivation of Psilocybe cubensis
mushrooms by laypersons will significantly
heighten the mushroom's popularity or widen its
area of distribution anytime soon.
However, since the early 1980s, growing
numbers of mycophiles in North America and
Europe have successfully used "natural outdoor
cultivation" to fruit Psilocybe cyanescens and
similar species. This process involves selection of
natural wood substrates striated with mycelia
(rhizomorphs) that usually turn blue in response
to handling. The mycelia are then transferred onto
fresh wood chips or commercial mulch (not from
cedar trees). After several months of growth, the
mycelia fruit during the fall season.
Figure 50 - Surface culture of Inocybe aeruginascens on a liquid nutrient medium.
Figure 51 - Panaeolus subbalteatus on cow dung and rice.
Figure 52 - Psilocybe cubensis on wet newspaper.
PSYCHOTROPIC MUSHROOM SPECIES
AROUND THE WORLD
Figure 53 - Psilocybe cubensis on compost.
Figure 54 - Psilocybe stuntzii (grasslands variety) from British Columbia.
Figure 55 - Giant mushroom sculpture from Kerala, India. There is considerable debate among
experts about the significance and purpose of the sculpture.
Figure 56 - Magic mushrooms & water buffalo t-shirt from Thailand,
designed for the Western tourist market.
SPOTLIGHT ON NORTH AMERICA AND HAWAII
In 1961, V.E. Tyler became the first
investigator to report the detection of psilocybin in
Psilocybe pelliculosa (Smith) Singer & Smith,
a North American mushroom species. One year
later, two research groups, working independently,
discovered psilocybin, as well as psilocin, in
samples of Psilocybe baeocystis Singer & Smith
from the Pacific Northwest region of North
America. Additional chemical and taxonomic
findin Infofabricioefabiancombrlocnl sacanaca