In the main they were not copying each other, and they probably
had the important facts right.
Claudius was exceedingly fond of mushrooms boleti, and a plausible tradition
has it that his favorite kind was what we know today as the amanita caesarea.
The dish of mushrooms that he ate on the fateful day consisted of poisoned, not
poisonous, mushrooms. On this all three of the ancient historians agree, in different
words. Since any such kind intention was foreign to Agrippinas nature,
and a fortiori at the dreadful moment that we are considering, we may assume
that her purpose was different the comic actors were to bear witness in the public
market-place that the Emperor had not been killed but was in truth desperately
ill, and the Hippocratic facies that we know he must have manifested gave them
full warranty for such a report.
brazilian cubensis strenght Inforemaxanahtaristcom Exquisitum aliquid placebat, quod turbaret mentem et mortem differret.
t resume his affection for his son.
Something of a subtle nature was therefore resolved upon, such as would disorder his
brain and require time to kill. Oxford translation, Annals, Book xn, Chap. 66
There was only one poison available to the ancients that would fulfill Agrippinas
requirements - the poison of the deadly anianita. Infomailscdsboncalocnl
how long does it take for mycelym to fully colinize
experience lasted about six hours. No ill effects
followed. There was no headache, nor any
disturbance of the digestion.
During the winter of 1915, a species of
Panaeolus spontaneously appeared in a mushroom
greenhouse in New York. These fruiting bodies
were accidentally eaten together with the
champignons that were cultivated there. This error
led to cases of intoxications so remarkable that
Murrill described the mushroom as Panaeolus
venenosus. Some time passed before it was
discovered that this species had previously been
described as Agaricus
subbalteatus B. & Br. from England in 1861. The
combination term that is in use today, Panaeolus
subbalteatus (B.& Br.) Sacc. was first published in
Other cases of intoxications with similar
symptoms caused by the Panaeolus species have
been reported in the United States (1917), as well
as from Australia (after 1940), where the species
involved was described as "Panaeolus ovatus
Cooke & Massee".
In 1939, these reports induced Schultes,
in agreement with Linder's classification
experiments, to publish as Panaeolus sphinctrinus
(Fr.) Quel. the teonanacatl mushroom described
in the Mexican literature from the 16th and 17th
However, Wasson, Heim and their
collaborators, as well as Singer, were unable to
document the usage of Panaeolus mushrooms in
Mexico, in addition to their reports about the usage
of psychoactive Psilocybe species from the 1950s.
By 1959, even Guzman referred to this species as
"the false teonanacatl". So far, he has been unable
to document native usage of any Panaeolus
species in Mexico. In fact, the natives of Mexico
consider bluing, hallucinogenic Panaeolus
mushrooms to be poisonous.
Despite the poisoning case reported in
England, the early German literature does not
classify Panaeolus species as poisonous (see
Figure 27). The Psilocybe species were treated
Figure 27 describes the mushroom's
characteristics as accurately as Figure 3 (p. 6)
depicts its habitus. More recent descriptions are
usually less detailed and thorough than Michael &
Schulz's from 1927.
In Germany, a case of intoxication with
Panaeolus mushrooms was first reported in 1957
(see Figure 28). From today's perspective, it
appears that the mushroom responsible for the
intoxication was most likely Panaeolus retirugis
About 30 to 60 minutes after ingestion of
the cooked mushrooms, the woman's field of
vision began to quiver increasingly. At the same
time, her pupils were extremely dilated. As she
began to have difficulties breathing, she suffered
a full-fledged anxiety attack. All objects appeared
as if obscured by curtains. After the effects had
subsided, no symptoms of lasting damage could
In 1970, another poisoning case with
Panaeolus subbalteatus occurred in Leipzig.
Similar to the 1915 incident in New York, the
mushrooms spontaneously emerged among a
culture of artificially cultivated mushroo Mushrooms
"@mot.nl" Hallucinogenic Magic_MushroomsGrow_Shroomspd-1627-1025-pm14