PSYCHEDELIC MUSHROOMS SPORES
One reason ofttimes given for the relative uniformity of the Russian
people has been the absence of mountain barriers in their homeland the geographical
circumstances have encouraged a cultural and ethnic fluidity. But
this explanation proves too much for precisely the same reason they could
have lost their identity in the vast steppes, exposed forever as they were to
alien peoples on every side, tugging them in every dkection. More than half of Australia's beef cattle can be found in the coastal areas of Queensland and New South Wales; and the 20 to 30 inch (500-750mm) rainfall belt of Queensland, New South Wales and Northern Victoria, generally provide adequate climatic environments for the growth of psilocybian mushrooms, especially after heavy rains.
It has been suggested that "Psilocybe cubensis was introduced into Australia accidentally by early settlers along with their livestock." This same spore dispersal mechanism also probably applies to Copelandia cyanescens, Panaeolus subbalteatus and several additional species known to occur in or around the dung of other ruminants. This includes Psilocybe semilanceata and the non-hallucinogenic "haymaker's" mushroom Panaeolina foenisecii. While cattle are raised in all Australian states, as well as in the central lowlands, Info Camarariodosul Sc Gov Br recreational users have been known to export these psychoptic species to various areas in Australia from areas where they were collected. In the case of New Zealand, hereafter referred to as NZ, cattle are the primary source for Copelandia cyanescens, but the "liberty cap" mushroom Psilocybe semilanceata only grows in the manured soil of four-legged ruminants and not directly from manure (Jansen, Pers. Comm., 1988). The identification section of this guide documents reported locations for more than 1 dozen species of psilocybian mushrooms in Australia and NZ which most likely have been used at one time or another for recreational purposes. TANESCO OWA
Email Spores Psychedelic Mushrooms
Two of our authors, Suetonius and Tacitus, give us grounds for supposing
that the administration of the poison was entrusted to the eunuch Halotus,
whose office it was to taste the Emperors food before serving it to him. Tacitus
says that Halotus poured the poison into the dish of mushrooms. It would have
been easy for Locusta to prepare a sauce from the deadly specimens, and by
enlisting the aid of Halotus, no suspicion would be aroused by the failure to
serve it to others at the feast.
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oped symptoms of
intoxication, such as markedly dilated pupils,
spontaneous laughter and delirium. The progression
of symptoms was experienced as wave-like, with
cycles of increasing and fading intensity. In
addition, the father's visual perception was affected
so that everything around him appeared to be black
- a frightening experience he believed to presage his
Even though two family members (ages 12
and 18) consumed only small amounts of the
cooked mushrooms, the ensuing symptoms of
intoxication were no different from those observed
in family members who had eaten comparatively
larger portions. After several hours, the psychic and
perceptual disturbances subsided and finally
disappeared, without any lingering side effects.
Attempts to treat acute symptoms included
administration of emetics and fortifying tonics. In
the end, these potions were heralded as the crucial
treatment that "cured" the family.
For the most part it is extremely difficult, if
not impossible, to assemble complete and accurate
details on many aspects of magic mushroom history
from source materials available today. Thus, it is an
instance of rare good fortune and a boon to
mushroom historians that E. Brande's description of
a typical psilocybin syndrome was augmented by J.
Sowerby, author of "Coloured Figures of English
Fungi or Mushrooms" (London, 1803). Sowerby's
book included a rendition and description of the
mushroom species responsible for the poisoning
case described by Brande (see p. 17). Within the
context of Sowerby's book, only the variety of
mushrooms distinguished by their cone-shaped
caps were believed to cause intoxication. Figure
9 shows a typical rendition of Psilocybe
semilanceata. This mushroom species was
known to Sowerby's contemporaries as
"Agaricus glutinosus Curtis" and its descriptions
are fully compatible with current knowledge
about Psilocybe semilanceata.
A few years later, renowned Swedish
mycologist E. Fries referred to "Agaricus
semilanceatus" in his book entitled "Observationes
Mycologicae" (1818). Later on, the
same mushroom also appeared under the names
Coprinarius semilanceatus Fr. or Panaeolus
semilanceatus (Fr.) Lge. Not until 1870 did
Kummer and Quelet classify this mushroom as
a member of the genus Psilocybe.
Consequently, two valid designations may be
found in the literature:
-- Psilocybe semilanceata (Fr.) Kumm. or --
-- Psilocybe semilanceata (Fr.) Quel.
Around 1900, M. C. Cooke reported two or
three new instances of accidental mushroom
intoxication involving children in England.
Interestingly, Cooke noted that symptoms were
caused only by a variety of mushroom known to
turn blue (var. caerulescens). He
was the first mycologist to wonder if a bluing
variety of this species was poisonous, or if the
bluish color was induced by external factors,
causing changes in the mushroom's chemical
composition so as to render them poisonous.
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CATTLE AS A POSSIBLE DISPERSAL MECHANISM FOR PSYCHOACTIVE DUNG FUNGI
One may ask the question, "how did these mushrooms arrive in Australia and New Zealand?" Well some species may be endemic,that is, they were already there naturally. Other species such as the above described dung-inhabiting mushrooms most likelyappeared after the introduction of cattle on the subcontinent.The first livestock to arrive in Australia were brought from the Cape of Good Hope in1788, and included 2 bulls and 5 cows, along with other domesticated farm animals. Byl803, the government owned approximately 1800 cattle, most of which were importedfrom the Cape, Calcutta, and the west coast of America. It was during this period thatsome of the visionary mushrooms mentioned in this field guide probably first appeared inAustralia (Unsigned, 1973). According to Australian mycologist John Burton Cleland(1934), "fungi growing in cow or horse-dung and confined to such habitats, must in thecase of Australia, all belong to introduced species". It is believed to have been the SouthAfrican dung beetle which may have actually spread the spores. According to Englishmycologist Roy Watling of the Royal Botanic Gardens in Glasgow, Scotland, "it must beremembered that fungi can change substrate preferences and there are coprophilousfungi on kangaroo droppings etc." Some mycologists who have studied the "magicmushrooms" in Australia and NZ claim that the "use of P. cubensis as a recreational drugtends to confirm the belief that some farmers in early times may have added one or two basidiomes gilled mushrooms to a mealto liven it up and still do Margot & Watling, 1981)."
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