50 times more potent as a psychoactive substance.
For example, up to 2 g of mescaline were being
administered with no dangerous side effects, while
the usual dose of psilocybin ranged from 3 to 30
mg as part of psychological testing and
As is the case with other psychotropic
substances, human beings most likely have a more
sensitive reaction in response to psilocybin than
mice do. Still, the range of safety in controlled
experiments comes to several hundred times the
amount of the active dosage. The same goes for the
consumption of mushroom material, since
psilocybin concentrations in mushrooms can vary
up to a factor of 10. Consequently, J. Ott
speculated that adults would need to eat their own
body weight in fresh mushrooms, in order to finally
reach the dosage limit of lethal toxicity. Despite the
hundreds of thousands of voluntary selfexperiments
taking place every year in the U.S.
alone, no fatalities caused by magic mushrooms
have ever occurred there. Small children, however,
have abnormal reactions to psilocybin, such as loss
of consciousness, cramps and danger of death.
It was in the fall of 1960, that a child from
Milwaukee, Oregon, picked several mushrooms
from grassy soil below a cluster of conifers.
Having eaten the mushrooms, the child
experienced cramps and a high fever. Similar to a
condition described as "status epilepticus ", the
symptoms were treated by medications, with
limited success. The child died within three days.
The mushroom sample involved in this
incident was identified as Psilocybe baeocystis. P.
Stamets, however, contested this finding, claiming
the species had been misidentified. He referred to
a publication about the incident that included a
picture of the mushrooms, which, according to
Stamets, shows a sample of Psilocybe cyanescens.
This species is wellknown as exceptionally
potent, due to high levels of psilocybin and
psilocin. Still, we cannot determine whether toxic
concentrations of alkaloids were the cause of
death, or whether ingestion of the alkaloids
triggered a latent case of epilepsy in the form of
an acute episode that could not be treated or
controlled. If a similar incident happened
nowadays, fatal outcomes could be easily
prevented, since the last three decades of progress
in pharmaceutical research included the discovery
of new drugs capable of aborting convulsive
Due to publicity generated by the
unfortunate accident in 1960, two alkaloids
(baeocystin and norbaeocystin) first isolated from
Psilocybe baeocystis, at times acquired
reputations of being extremely poisonous as well
as strongly psychoactive. Both claims, however,
are wrong and unsubstantiated. Specifically, both
baeocystin and norbaeocystin are present in other
mushroom species, such as Psilocybe
semilanceata, and at generally higher levels
compared to the alkaloid content of Psilocybe
Biochemical research efforts accelerat Only Bulliard put
the fly amanita to the test, and his findings seem to have been cleanly negative.
But in support of Bulliards scepticism we can add a story told to us by a Russian
friend, Ekaterina Apollinarievna Bouteneff. Her nurse in childhood was an unlettered
peasant woman from the region of Riazan. Our friend remembers having
seen this good woman time and again put out a saucer with a crushed cap of the
fly amanita in it, a lump of sugar on top of the fungal mess.
"*@tanesco.co.tz" MUSHROOMS OF MUSHROOMS SHROOMS OF ength.
Only a small number of panic reactions were
known to have occurred in Norway, with some
individuals requiring temporary clinical attention.
Nonetheless, in December 1981, the mushroom
species was classified under Norwegian narcotics
law as an "absolutely forbidden substance". The
same classification applies to the potentially
dangerously addictive drugs of the heroine type,
as well as to the pure hallucinogens, such as LSD,
mescaline and psilocybin, all of which are
pharmacologically completely different from any
of the heroine-type drugs. By contrast, Figure 57
illustrates that other European nations have
attitudes similar to those found in British
Columbia, which form the basis for my own
analytical work with mushroom materials.
Compared to Norway, there is less
information about usage of Psilocybe
semilanceata from other countries. The year 1981
has been named as the starting date of usage in
Finland; by 1984, there had only been one patient
who required medical attention.
There are additional countries where the
mushrooms are being used and collected, more or
less sporadically: The Netherlands, Austria,
Denmark, Sweden, Belgium, Germany,
Switzerland, and recently Russia near the St.
Petersburg area. The mushrooms have even been
found in Siberia. In some areas, where the
mushrooms thrive in abundance, a more
comprehensive mode of usage can be observed,
without attracting much additional attention over
a longer period of time.
Costly measures, such as the deployment of
helicopters over pastures in the Jura Mountains of
Switzerland to flush out mushroom collectors have
rarely been used and were quickly abandoned.
Switzerland is another country where
Psilocybe cubensis is being cultivated and used
without attracting much attention. Below is an
account provided by a Swiss friend about his first
ever experience with this species:
Intense, kaleidoscope-like colors are being
generated. I begin to dive in and out of other
realities, followed by the painful loss of ego, death
and life. Suddenly I find myself inside a wooden
box. My body is a black mass full of low-level pain.
I have the black plague. I was put inside the box,
because I was thought to be dead, but I am still
alive. I am being carried to and placed on top of
cart so that I can be transported to be burned. Few
others are being given such a box. At first I
am in despair, but then I know that the end is near,
anyway. Death is a liberation for me. I
remember: I see my house in the city center of
Metz, where I used to live until now. Then came the
plague. My years of selfish dedication of helping
sick, degenerate, stinking, hungry and dying people.
I provide comfort and companionship, as
well as medication that remains ineffective. I
continuously make house calls, there is no end in
sight. I become ill myself. At first I deny this
fact, but now I am inside this wooden box, in a state
of semi-consciousness. I know that the mail mail
His short poem, which we reproduce as
it first appeared in print, eloquently expresses medieval mans repugnance for
the toad, and reveals how intimate Ripley and his circle must have been with
the toads milky exudate and its fearsome virtue.
Our quotations concerning the toad go back to the Middle Ages and the
Renaissance, but the ideas therein expressed lived on until recent times. Info Mail Rt Mart Com Cn Loc Nl
Of all the fools, chumps, dolts, fungi, oafs, drivelers, and mouthing
idiots, wherever or whenever - single-handed I top the lot
of them in folly and clumsy behavior!
Genin could have cited parallel examples in English - Shakesperes toadstool
as an epithet, and Sir William Perms mushroom. We will go further and make
bold to suggest that the perfect translation offungus as Plautus usedlses must have opposite faculties and characteristics. Loc Gov Camarariodosul Camarariodosul Sc Nl Info
Brasil Mail magic-shrooms-in-adelaide-hills