nießen, die halluzinogene Erfahrung machen Conocybe Lactea Magic und die Verbindung
ure of Psilocybe semilanceata
(with sclerotia formation).
Figure 48 - Inocybe aeruginascens on grassy soil
Figure 49 - Psilocybe cubensis on horse manure and rice.
portions of mycelia whose texture is somewhat
like wool. The kind of viruses known to appear in
champignon cultures - where they have already
caused a lot of damage - have so far not been
found in cultures of the Psilocybe and Panaeolus
It is safe to say that we currently know a
great deal about the nutritional requirements of
Psilocybe cubensis. To a lesser extent, such
information is available about other species as
well. Armed with this knowledge, future
researchers may well discover new insights into
physiology of these species, as well as the
biochemical changes that occur during fruiting.
In my experiments, it has already been
established that the process of differentiation
whereby mycelia are transformed into sclerotia or
fruiting bodies is linked to increased production
of psilocybin as well as psilocin, especially in
Due to the relatively complex
methodology and the type of equipment needed to
isolate and maintain sterile cultures, it appears
unlikely that cultivation of Psilocybe cubensis
mushrooms by laypersons will significantly
heighten the mushroom's popularity or widen its
area of distribution anytime soon.
However, since the early 1980s, growing
numbers of mycophiles in North America and
Europe have successfully used "natural outdoor
cultivation" to fruit Psilocybe cyanescens and
similar species. This process involves selection of
natural wood substrates striated with mycelia
(rhizomorphs) that usually turn blue in response
to handling. The mycelia are then transferred onto
fresh wood chips or commercial mulch (not from
cedar trees). After several months of growth, the
mycelia fruit during the fall season.
Figure 50 - Surface culture of Inocybe aeruginascens on a liquid nutrient medium.
Figure 51 - Panaeolus subbalteatus on cow dung and rice.
Figure 52 - Psilocybe cubensis on wet newspaper.
PSYCHOTROPIC MUSHROOM SPECIES
AROUND THE WORLD
Figure 53 - Psilocybe cubensis on compost.
Figure 54 - Psilocybe stuntzii (grasslands variety) from British Columbia.
Figure 55 - Giant mushroom sculpture from Kerala, India. There is considerable debate among
experts about the significance and purpose of the sculpture.
Figure 56 - Magic mushrooms & water buffalo t-shirt from Thailand,
designed for the Western tourist market.
SPOTLIGHT ON NORTH AMERICA AND HAWAII
In 1961, V.E. Tyler became the first
investigator to report the detection of psilocybin in
Psilocybe pelliculosa (Smith) Singer & Smith,
a North American mushroom species. One year
later, two research groups, working independently,
discovered psilocybin, as well as psilocin, in
samples of Psilocybe baeocystis Singer & Smith
from the Pacific Northwest region of North
America. Additional chemical and taxonomic
On the other hand, baeocystin as the
Biochemical precursor of psilocybin is found in
all fruiting bodies of the Psilocybe species. The
precursor has a hydrogen atom where
psilocybin's only CH3 group is
located; the average baeocystin content
is 0.2% of dry weight. In 1967, Leung and Paul
reported the isolation of baeocystin from
fruiting bodies of Psilocybe baeocystis Singer &
Smith in North America. In 1977, Repke and
Leslie also found the substance in a Psilocybe
semilanceata sample from the same place of
Some investigators have found
differences in alkaloid content when comparing
single fruiting bodies from the same location.
contain additional substances that contribute to the
overall psychotropic effect. This hypothesis is
supported by the fact that considerable amounts of
baeocystin are consistently found in samples of
Psilocybe semilanceata. I am also aware of an
experiment whose results showed that 4 mg of
baeocystin caused mild hallucinations for three
hours, while 10 mg of baeocystin were found to be
about as psychoactive as a similar amount of
The Long Shelflife of Psilocybin
Alkaloid Content of Dried Mushrooms from a
Location in the Dubener Marshlands of
Eastern Germany (Selected Results)
Dry Weigh t (mg ) Ps i locybi n (%) Baeocys t i n (%)
18 1.25 0.34
30 0.96 0.21
70 0.72 0.19
85 0.90 0.10
Smaller mushrooms almost always
contained more alkaloids than larger specimens.
This fording was then confirmed by another study
using considerably larger amount of investigative
materials (40 mushrooms). Moreover,
exceptionally high concentrations of baeocystin
have been shown to accumulate in the caps of
fruiting bodies that contain the alkaloid. In
addition, one mushroom sample from Finland
deserves special mention due to its unusually high
psilocybin content of 2.37%!
Early controlled studies of the
psychoactivity of various species in the former
Czechoslovakia concluded that Psilocybe
semilanceata is a more potently psychoactive
species than Psilocybe bohemica, even though
both species were found to contain the same
amounts of psilocybin. Thus, researchers
hypothesized that the mushrooms are likely to
As part of dried mushroom material,
psilocybin is a remarkably durable substance. A
sample of desiccated mushrooms dated 1869 from
a Finnish herbarium was still found to contain
0.014% of psilocybin. On the other hand, no
alkaloids were founds in another sample dated
1843. Unfortunately, it is no longer possible to
determine the methods used in drying these
samples. Temperatures over 50°C cause psilocybin
to break down into its derivatives. In laboratory
settings, mushrooms are usually dried at room
temperatures. Sometimes, fruiting bodies are also
freeze-dried for analysis. Freeze-dried mushrooms,
however, have a highly porous texture that causes
the alkaloids to break down relatively quickly, if the
samples are stored at room temperature (20°C)
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lose relative of Mexico's
psychoactive species, Psilocybe semilanceata is
a mushroom whose physical appearance
resembles Psilocybe semperviva Heim &
Cailleux and Psilocybe
Stalks generally single, sometimes clustered, from two to four inches in
height, the thickness of a goose quill, thread shaped whitish almost solid, the
tube being very small, glutinous; ring, a little below the cap, scarce
“ Cap, from one to two inches in breadth, of a brown color; in the full. grown
ones hemispherical, always convex, and more or lets glutinous; wet with
rain, it becomes browner and transparent,'so that it sometimes appears
“ Gills numerous, single, of a brownish purple color, clouded; whole ones
about twenty, horizontal, three shorter ones placed betwixt them; they throw
out a powder of a brownish purple color."
With respect to the use of it, he only says, « There is nothing acrimonious or
disagreeable in its taste, yet its appearance will not recommend it to the
lovers of mushrooms. Info Mail Easytrade Com Tw Loc Nl
Figure 9 - Drawing and description of Psilocybe semilanceata by J. Sowerby (London, 1803).
1733. A. semilanceatus Fries (Observ. II. pag. 178).
Synon. : Agaricus semiglobatus Sowerby (Engl. Fungi taf. 240.
fig. 1-3). Hut etwas hautig, spitz kegelfdrmig, fast zugespitzt, 11/2 Cent.
breit, 1/2 Cent. hock, feucht klebrig, fein streifig, gelb oder grunlich,
zah, mit Anfangs umgeknicktem Rande und leicht trennbarer Oberhaut.
Stiel zah, gebogen, 11 Cent. hock, kahl, blass. Lamellen angeheftet,
aufsteigend, purpur-schwarz. Sporen ellptisch, hellbraun, 9 -16 u
lang, 4 - 9 u dick.
Ax Wegen, auf Grasphitzen, besonders wo Mist gelegen hat.
spitzkegeliger Kahlkopf (Psilocybe semilanceata). Kegel-glockenformig mit
papilenertiger spitze Hut-o,5-1 cm breit, bis 2cm hock, lehmfarben mit olivgrunem
Stich, klebrig. Lamellen breit, oliv-lehmfarben, spater purpurbraun.
Stiel schlank, glanzend.
- Gedungte Wiesen, Wegrander. Stellenweise.
Figure 10 - Two descriptions of Psilocybe semilanceata from the German-language
The first description (top) was written over a hundred years ago, while the
second one (bottom) dates to 1962. Significantly, the more recent entry classifies the
species as "essentially worthless". Also see Figure 11.
mexicana Heim. Like Psilocybe semilanceata, these
Mexican species thrive in meadows and pastures.
Another common trait among these species is the
rather subdued and subtle quality of their bluing
reaction. Recognition of these similarities with
Mexican species sparked the curiosity of scientists
who wanted to learn more about Europe's
A research team that included
Hofmann and R. Heim began to study samples
of Psilocybe semilanceata, in collaboration with C.
Furrer, a mycologist who examined fruiting bodies
collected in Switzerland and France. By 1963,
paper chromatography testing had yielded data of
historic significance. For the first time, scientists
But the classic mushroom cults of Mexico were destroyed by the coming of
the Spanish conquest. The Franciscans assumed they had an absolute monopoly
on theophagy, the eating of God; yet in the New World they came upon people
calling a mushroom teonanacatl, the flesh of the gods. They set to work, and
the Inquisition was able to push the old religion into the mountains of
Oaxaca so that it only survived in a few villages when Valentina and Gordon
Wasson found it there in the 1950s. Spore Mushrooms