ed in Finnish samples. Finally, Beug and
Bigwood reported 0.93% of psilocybin in samples
collected in the Northwestern United States.
Interestingly, the second sample ever discovered in
Eastern Germany was found on July 2, 1989 near
Potsdam, where several fruiting bodies of the
Conocybe cyanopus species were growing in a
grassy area on sand. The original area, however,
where Schaffer first discovered the species 60 years
ago, lay within the Potsdam city limits and its exact
location can no longer be determined.
The sample collected in 1989 consisted of
five mushrooms that were found to have
concentrations of psilocybin and baeocystin similar
to levels found in Psilocybe semilanceata:
Concentrations of psilocybin were
strikingly similar to those found in samples
collected in the Northwestern United States.
After several days, spores from one of
the fruiting bodies germinated on malt agar and,
compared to other species, proceeded to grow
very slowly into their permanent forms or
"sclerotia" (see Figure 35, p. 57). The sclerotia
showed no blue discolorations, and were found
to contain 0.25 % psilocybin when dry, while no
additional alkaloids were detected.
In summary, it is reasonable to assume
that due to its small size and extreme rarity,
Conocybe cyanopus is a species that is not a
significant contributor to intoxications in
Europe, nor is it likely to gain such prominence
in the future. My own analyses of other, nonbluing
Conocybe species, such as Conocybe
tenera (Schaeff.:Fr.) Fayod and Conocybe lactea
(Lge) Metrod revealed the presence of
physiologically inactive ingredients only.
Samples of Conocybe species from
warm countries have not yet been analyzed and
may yet yield remarkable results in terms of
chemical composition and alkaloid content.
Selected Test Results on the Alkaloid Content
of Conocybe cyanopus (% of Dry Weight)
Mushroom Dry Weight(mg) Psilocybin Baeocystin
1 5 0.84 0.15
2 6 0.73 0.12
3 7 1.01 0.20
4 10 0.91 0.16
5 12 0.89 0.14
Figure 35 - Sclerotia of Conocybe cyanopus grown on malt agar.
Figure 36 - Fresh Conocybe cyanopus fruiting bodies
from the Pacific Northwest (USA).
PLUTEUS SALICINUS: A LITTLE-KNOWN WOOD-INHABITING SPECIES
Within the Pluteaceae family, there are
about 45 European species of the genus Pluteus,
some of whom also produce psilocybin.
Historically, the Pluteus species were
classified as belonging to the Amanitaceae family,
which also include the "death cap" and its relatives,
as well as the fly agaric mushroom, both of which
belong to the genus Amanita. Unlike all the other
psychoactive mushrooms mentioned here in this
book, the Pluteus species are classified as lightspored
mushrooms, because of their rose-colored
No accidental intoxications involving
Pluteus species have been documented in the
The first description providing qualitative
evidence for the presence of psilocybin and psilocin
was p the alphabet offers us no
explanation for the sequence of vegetables that we find in St. Isidore and
Athenaeus. Pliny is yet another witness to the tie that binds mushrooms to
Psilocybe species tennessee Infocentralformcojplocnl
CATTLE AS A POSSIBLE DISPERSAL MECHANISM FOR PSYCHOACTIVE DUNG FUNGI
One may ask the question, "how did these mushrooms arrive in Australia and New Zealand?" Well some species may be endemic,that is, they were already there naturally. Other species such as the above described dung-inhabiting mushrooms most likelyappeared after the introduction of cattle on the subcontinent.The first livestock to arrive in Australia were brought from the Cape of Good Hope in1788, and included 2 bulls and 5 cows, along with other domesticated farm animals. Byl803, the government owned approximately 1800 cattle, most of which were importedfrom the Cape, Calcutta, and the west coast of America. It was during this period thatsome of the visionary mushrooms mentioned in this field guide probably first appeared inAustralia (Unsigned, 1973). According to Australian mycologist John Burton Cleland(1934), "fungi growing in cow or horse-dung and confined to such habitats, must in thecase of Australia, all belong to introduced species". It is believed to have been the SouthAfrican dung beetle which may have actually spread the spores. According to Englishmycologist Roy Watling of the Royal Botanic Gardens in Glasgow, Scotland, "it must beremembered that fungi can change substrate preferences and there are coprophilousfungi on kangaroo droppings etc." Some mycologists who have studied the "magicmushrooms" in Australia and NZ claim that the "use of P. cubensis as a recreational drugtends to confirm the belief that some farmers in early times may have added one or two basidiomes gilled mushrooms to a mealto liven it up and still do Margot & Watling, 1981)."
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g Psilocybe semilanceata. He was
the first to formulate a hypothesis about the nature
of the bluing phenomenon and to point out its
physiological significance ( also see p. 16, bottom
right). He discovered Inocybe haemacta as well as
several Panaeolus species and classified the
Flammula species mentioned above. Remarkably,
one of his first publications was a book of popular
folk tales entitled "The Seven Sisters of Sleep"
(1860), which just happened to be an
interdisciplinary investigation of narcotic plants. Did
he himself, perhaps, sample one of the psychotropic
mushroom species? Most likely, we will never know
the answer to this question. Eventually, the
Flammula species came to be recognized as being
native to Australia and South America (Chile),
where the mushrooms fruit on dead tree trunks
during the month of May. Later on the mushroom's
name was changed to Gymnopilus purpuratus
(Cooke & Massee) Sing.
Mushrooms on Compost Mixture of
Wood Chips and Pig Manure
In 1983, a conspicuous mushroom was
observed growing on discarded bark and wood chips
near a particle board factory in RibnitzDamgarten
on the Eastern German seaboard.
The mushroom was initially classified as
Tricholomopsis rutilans (Schaeff.:Fr.) Sing.
However, this magnificent and beautiful
mushroom was found to have spore dust
colored orange to rusty brown, along with a
well-formed, bright yellow cortina. It also
turned blue in reaction to pressure and with age.
Closer study revealed that the specimen was
actually of the species Gymnopilus purpuratus,
a mushroom that, after a hundred years, had
once again been imported into Europe. The
microclimate essential for the mushroom's
growth had been created by mixing liquid pig
manure with the discarded wood chips. A
powerful composting process results from
pouring the liquid manure onto heaps that are
up to 20 yards long and several yards tall.The
process is designed to eliminate both types of
refuse. Measurements inside the heaps revealed
temperatures of about 176° Fahrenheit.
Consequently, the Gymnopilus species were
able to thrive on the top layers of the heaps,
along with other species from Asian and South
American countries with warm climates.
There is, of course, the question of just
how the Gymnopilus species got to Europe in the
first place. In the late 1970s, large amounts of
feed grain were imported from Argentina. Thus,
it appears likely that some mushroom spores may
have stuck to the grain from where they passed
unharmed through the pigs' digestive systems and
went on to colonize the compost heaps.
Even though the compost heaps are
plowed at least twice a year and shipped as
fertilizer to surrounding fields after about two
years of storage, the mushrooms continue to grow
on wood piles in new locations whenever its
spores have reproduced (see Figure 30, p. 40).
However, in the wake of changes in economic
conditions and growing ecological awareness in
Eastern Germa Infofabricioefabiancombrlocnl
sclerotia legal in us
MASHA-HARI (Justicia pectoralis var. stenophylla) is a small herb cultivated by the Waiká Indians of
the Brazilian- Venezuelan frontier region. The aromatic leaves are occasionally dried, powdered, and
mixed with the hallucinogenic snuff made from resin of the Virola tree. Other species of Justicia have
been reported to be employed in that region as the sole source of a narcotic snuff.
Hallucinogenic constituents have not yet been found in Justicia, but if any species of the genus is
utilized as the only ingredient of an intoxicating snuff, then one or more active constituents must be
present. The 300 species of Justicia, members of the acanthus family, Acanthaceae, grow in the tropics
and subtropics of both hemispheres. How Mushrooms Salvia How How Do
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