several members of a family eat the mushrooms together: it is not uncommon for a father, mother, children, uncles, and aunts to all participate in these transformations of the mind that elevate consciousness onto a higher plan. The kinship relation is thus the basis of the transcendental subjectivity that Husserl said is intersubjectivity. The mushrooms themselves are eaten in pairs, a couple representing man and woman that symbolizes the dual principle of procreation and creation. Then they sit together in their inner light, dream and realize and converse with each other, presences seated there together, their bodies immaterialized by the blackness, voices from without their communality. In a general sense, for everyone present the purpose of the session is a therapeutic catharsis. The chemicals of transformation of revelation that open the circuits of light, vision, and communication, called by us mind-manifesting, were known to the American Indians as medicines: the means given to men to know and to heal, to see and to say the truth. Among the Mazatecs, many, one time or another during their lives, have eaten the mushrooms, whether to cure themselves of an ailment or to resolve a problem; but it is not everyone who has a predilection for such extreme and arduous experiences of the creative imagination or who would want to repeat such journeys into the strange, unknown depths of the brain very frequently: those who do are the shamans, the masters, whose vocation it is to eat the mushrooms because they are the men of the spirit, the men of language, the men of wisdom. They are individuals recognized by their people to be expert in such psychological adventures, and when the others eat the mushrooms they always call to be with them, as a guide, one of those who is considered to be particularly acquainted with these modalities of the spirit. The medicine man presides over the session, for just as the Mazatec family is paternal and authoritarian, the liberating experience unfolds in the authoritarian context of a situation in which, rather than being allowed to speak or encouraged to express themselves, everyone is enjoined to keep silent and listen while the shaman speaks for each of those who are present. As one of the early Spanish chroniclers of the New World said: "They pay a sorcerer who eats them the mushrooms and tells them what they have taught him. He does so by means of a rhythmic chant in full voice."
Mycologists are prone to exaggerate the importance of mushroom poisonings
in history. In their writings we repeatedly find a list of eminent persons who have
died allegedly from eating poisonous mushrooms, a list that they copy from each
other without verification. Sometimes we read that Euripides lost his wife and
two daughters thus, an assertion unsupported by any ancient text, apparently
based on a misreading of Athenaeus.
Mail Diy.Ne.Jp Loc:Nl Mailsubduedchlocnl
CATTLE AS A POSSIBLE DISPERSAL MECHANISM FOR PSYCHOACTIVE DUNG FUNGI
One may ask the question, "how did these mushrooms arrive in Australia and New Zealand" Well some species may be endemic,that is, they were already there naturally. Other species such as the above described dung-inhabiting mushrooms most likelyappeared after the introduction of cattle on the subcontinent.The first livestock to arrive in Australia were brought from the Cape of Good Hope in1788, and included 2 bulls and 5 cows, along with other domesticated farm animals. Byl803, the government owned approximately 1800 cattle, most of which were importedfrom the Cape, Calcutta, and the west coast of America. It was during this period thatsome of the visionary mushrooms mentioned in this field guide probably first appeared inAustralia (Unsigned, 1973). According to Australian mycologist John Burton Cleland(1934), "fungi growing in cow or horse-dung and confined to such habitats, must in thecase of Australia, all belong to introduced species". It is believed to have been the SouthAfrican dung beetle which may have actually spread the spores. According to Englishmycologist Roy Watling of the Royal Botanic Gardens in Glasgow, Scotland, "it must beremembered that fungi can change substrate preferences and there are coprophilousfungi on kangaroo droppings etc." Some mycologists who have studied the "magicmushrooms" in Australia and NZ claim that the "use of P. cubensis as a recreational drugtends to confirm the belief that some farmers in early times may have added one or two basidiomes gilled mushrooms to a mealto liven it up and still do Margot & Watling, 1981)."
loc:NL loc:NL loc:NL
���� Towards the identification of alcalo Of
���� Early work destiny S identify alcalo of in Amanita were r alis s by Schmiedeberg and Koppe in 1869 shows rent a parasympathomim tique de l extract Amanita capable d&----New Block----39;arr ter the heart of frog in diastole. This is however only in 1931 that K Gl, Duisberg and Erxleben isol The rent for the first muscarine First time and it was not until more than twenty years for Obtain pure. Ch Subdued Mail
mail diy.ne.jp loc:NL
3,000 ft), with one location at 1,400 m (4,200 ft)
above sea level. According to these distribution
patterns, the species does not appear to favor a
specific altitude. As of 1986, 44 locations in the
former Czechoslovakia had been logged, yielding a
total of 54 samples. In contrast to other mushroom
species, such as the cultivated commercial white
mushrooms (Agaricus bisporis), Psilocybe
semilanceata will fruit in a comparatively much
wider range of temperatures.
While Psilocybe semilanceata is common
throughout Germany, the species does not appear to
favor specific areas where it occurs in marked
abundance or density. One obvious limitation on the
growth of the species is the limited presence of
fertilizer in areas that would otherwise be excellent
locations for the mushroom to thrive in. Most likely
that is why the species has not expanded into new
habitats in Germany over the last few decades.
Descriptions of frequency of occurrence in the older
literature are comparable to contemporary
On occasion, however, Psilocybe
semilanceata can produce a huge number of fruiting
bodies at certain locations where conditions for
growth are excellent.
Between a Creek and a Marshlands Pond....
8'/2 Inches Tall !
At this point, I would like to provide some
more details about two marshlands locations, where
we have conducted mycological field research over
the course of several years.
At the first location, the fruiting bodies
grew in a shallow grass valley among very tall grass
on slightly acidic soil. This grassy area was
a forest clearing between a creek and a marshlands
pond. In areas exposed to direct sunlight,
temperatures were significantly higher than they
were in surrounding areas, a phenomenon that
persisted during the fall season. Deer droppings
contributed to frequent fertilization of the area. The
fruiting bodies from the first batch of mushrooms
found in this location had stems of up to 81
(21.5 cm) tall, due to very tall grass in the area. The
caps of the mushrooms were so tiny, that clear
identification of the species as Psilocybe
semilanceata was not immediately possible. Even
though a bluing reaction was present,
chromatography testing was needed to confirm the
species. Subsequent discoveries, however, yielded
samples that could be identified on the spot based
on their morphological characteristics. We were
able to collect 30 to 60 specimens at this location
every fall for three consecutive years.
Unfortunately, the location was destroyed soon
afterwards, due to man-made modifications to the
marshlands and construction of an access road.
During the same year, we discovered a
second location within about half a mile of the first
one. The area was very large, a former cow pasture
which had been grazed regularly. It was located
next to a creek that saturated the soil completely.
Today, sheep occasionally graze the area and deer
droppings are commonly found in Co
Mail Dwlogistics.Co.Kr Aphrodisiacs