reports about prolonged
psychoses and other such side effects did not
appear until the "LSD era" some years later.
North America's mushrooms offer many
opportunities for additional taxonomic work and
many more still remain to be discovered. To
illustrate, a new mushrooms species was recently
reported from Oregon. The mushroom, Psilocybe
azurescens Stamets & Gartz is unusually large
and very potent due to its high psilocybin
content. North America's rich mycoflora,
particularly in regions of wet climates in the
eastern and midwestern United States is wide
open for further research efforts that may well
yield valuable and amazing new results.
As early as 1909, Murrill described
"Inocybe infida", a mushroom with "narcotic"
effects from New York. In 1911, Ford named
"Inocybe infelix" as a species that also caused
strange effects, without inducing symptoms of
muscarine poisoning. These descriptions
immediately bring to mind the psilocybinproducing
fibreheads, even though visionary
experiences are not expressly mentioned.
In the future, we should expect an
increase in usage of local, psychoactive species
from locations across the U.S. and Canada.
MYCOPHILIA IN CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICA
Compared to the time of Wasson and
Heim's discovery, recent decades have brought
significant changes to several regions of Mexico in
terms of how local Indians relate to the
psychotropic Psilocybe species. In many remote
parts of the country, mushroom cults still exist in
their specific contemporary forms which combine
Christian views with elements from pagan and pre-
Christian Nature religions.
By contrast, in other parts of the country,
mushroom rituals have fallen into disuse in the
wake of interaction with Mexico's "modern life"
and its tourism industry. When Guzman
investigated the taxonomy and geographic
distribution of Psilocybe aztecorum Heim in 1978,
he noted that several active "curanderas" had been
the focal point of sacred mushroom worship 20
years earlier. Today, the next generation of Indians
no longer ingest the mushrooms and consider the
hallucinogenic species to be nothing but a popular
trading commodity for Western tourists.
Starting in the 1960s, large numbers of
young people from industrialized nations
("hippies") began to visit the centers of mushroom
worship as tourists, favoring the state of Oaxaca.
They came mostly from the United States, and
initially their main destination was the village of
Huautla de Jiminez, to visit Maria Sabina, who
guided R.G. Wasson during his first mushroom
session in 1955. To the extent that magic
mushrooms have been labeled "fool's mushrooms"
or "joker's mushrooms" in Europe, it is interesting
to note here that Maria Sabina herself repeatedly
referred to the mushrooms as "clowns" and called
herself "chief of the clowns" or "lord of the
clowns". In Mexico, magic mushrooms are also
known as "mushrooms of pure laughter".
Today we know that this In the face of this evidence, accident becomes the long and unlikely arm of
coincidence. Perhaps traces of the underlying unity of zhaba and gamba survive
in the vernacular terms of the Ukraine and Slovakia that we cited on page 78.
Perhaps there is a trace of that unity, hidden behind translated words, in the
Basque word for toad, apo, linked as it is semantically with both sponginess
and certain wild mushrooms.
"*@Tanesco.Co.Tz" Mushroom Grow (= Vorrat an Material zur Beimpfung von Roggensubstrat)
ch wider expansion of the species. In coming
years, we should expect the species to further
migrate into areas with sandy soil.
The Inocybe species are mycorrhizal
mushrooms, that is, in contrast to other psilocybincontaining
species, they require a symbiosis with
certain types of wood in order to fruit. Fruiting
occurs at the time of greatest biochemical activity
of the symbiotic partner trees. Following periods
of extended rainfall, Inocybe aeruginascens grows
in the trees' root areas from late May until
October. The mushrooms are especially common
in May and June, a time period during which
Inocybe aeruginascens is easily differentiated
from other species of fibreheads, as long as one
pays close attention to locations, the characteristic
greenish to bluish discoloration (e.g. if the
mushrooms are stored overnight, especially in the
refrigerator) and the description shown below (see
Figure 32 - Description of Inocybe aeruginascens (Germany, 1986) with English translation at right.
Figure 33 - First description of Inocybe aeruginascens
in the mycological literature (M. Babos, 1968).
Figure 34 - Inocybe aeruginascens fruiting bodies from
Potsdam, Eastern Germany.
Unlike species of thin-fleshed Psilocybe
mushrooms that do not fruit until fall, Inocybe
aeruginascens frequently suffers from fly larvae
infestations, especially in older colonies. The
resulting lesions are injured areas that turn
greenish-blue. It must be noted, however, that of
all species introduced here, Inocybe
aeruginascens is most easily misidentified by
laypersons, as it is of the same genus as the
potentially lethal species that produce
Drewitz's speculation that Inocybe
aeruginascens contains psilocybin was supported
by results from my own investigations in 1984.
Extracts of more than 100 mushrooms collected
in Hungary and Germany from 1967 to 1990
were examined. Quantitative analyses revealed
that the fruiting bodies contained a fairly
constant amount of psilocybin each, as well as
some baeocystin. These results were first
reported in February, 1985. Later that year, the
presence of psilocybin in Inocybe aeruginascens
was confirmed by research teams from the
former West Berlin, Regensburg (Germany) and
Switzerland. Known cases of intoxication
seemed to indicate that the fruiting bodies
contained small amounts of muscarine. But
among all the samples that were tested - at all
stages of development and from widely different
collections - not one specimen contained even
trace amounts of muscarine.
In collaboration with colleagues from
Czechoslovakia, we were able to confirm that
the average alkaloid content does not vary much,
a finding based on analyses of extracts from
several mushrooms. Moreover, the alkaloid
content of fruiting bodies stored for prolonged
periods declined only slightly over time:
Psilocybin Content of Inocybe aeruginascens
from Various Locations (% of Dried Samples Buy Spores
We were drenched to the very marrow of our bones
and of course missed our train. He did not quit until his sack was full and his
razh was quenched.1
By the Russian scale of values, all the wonderful golf courses of vast America
are inviting more for the mushrooms that grow on them and in the woods
along their well-tended borders, than for the game. Pictures Of Mushrooms How Do I Grow Mushrooms
Mushroom Growing Nets florida-shrooms