l803, the government owned approximately 1800 cattle, most of which were imported
from the Cape, Calcutta, and the west coast of America. It was during this period that
some of the visionary mushrooms mentioned in this field guide probably first appeared in
Australia . According to Australian mycologist John Burton Cleland
1934, fungi growing in cow or horse-dung and confined to such habitats, must in the
case of Australia, all belong to introduced species. It was to be called Mycophagia Americana, but by the time it was ready,
the war was over and publishers were not interested.
In England during the recent war there were public and private efforts to
increase the consumption of wild fungi. We know one elderly Russian lady
who for a time made good money gathering belyegriby onWimbledon Common,
in full sight of the wondering English. She pickled or precooked them and
sold them to a fashionable restaurant. Growing Hallucinogenic Mushrooms Chap. 2, On Christian Sobriety, Sec. in, Remedies against Uncleanness
It was Jeremy Taylors privilege to believe in the mortification of the flesh,
but why did he vent his spleen on the humble mushroom I hope to show
on a later page that he and the herbalists were voicing, unbeknownst to themselves,
a pre-Christian tabu shared by all the peoples who dwell on the shores
of the North Sea.
This is in effect in 1953 that Eugster r? Success? purify muscarine chloride form cristalli? e en mettant en oeuvre des m? and chromatographic methods? ? establish its formula? l? mentary accurate. ? From 124 kg of mushroom he received 260 mg of ultrapure muscarine or a degree? Purification of 480 000 compared to the fungus which repr? feel muscarine in a concentration of 0.0002 fresh weight. It handles about 2 600 kg of mushrooms for about 5 g. Infoenergyalliancecomua
l process in the mycelia that will
induce fruiting. Additional exposure to light is
needed, if the fruiting bodies are to develop into
normal shapes and produce spores.
Apart from a series of interesting
physiological experiments performed by E.R.
Badham during the 1980s, there are a few other
noteworthy substrates for cultivation of
Psilocybe cubensis fruiting bodies. For instance,
we were the first to discover that a new type of
plant hormone (brassinosteroids) will accelerate
fruiting of the mycelia (Figure 40, p. 64). During
these experiments, we were also able to
completely suppress the formation of psilocybin
and psilocin through high concentrations of
phosphate. It is now possible to design future
physiological experiments to study different
hallucinogenic mushroom species under these
In recent years I have also succeeded at
cultivating the European hallucinogenic
Figure 43 - Gymnopilus purpuratus
fruiting on wet rice and saw dust.
Figure 45 - Psilocybe cubensis fruiting bodies grown an a
mixture of cow manure and rice.
Figure 44 - Psilocybe bohemica on a
Psilocybe semilanceata is a mushroom
species whose mycelia grow at a significantly
slower rate than the mycelia of Psilocybe
cubensis, Gymnopilus purpuratus, Panaeolus
subbalteatus and Psilocybe bohemica. Despite the
fact that only a few strains of Psilocybe
semilanceata actually fruited, cultivation of this
species succeeded with different substrates. After
a mycelial growth period of three to four months,
the mushrooms emerged on compost (see Figure
46) as well as on a mixture consisting of grass
seeds, dung, and rice (see Figure 66, p. 116). Four
flushes of fruiting bodies were observed.
Panaeolus subbalteatus also fruited after
92 days on a mixture of cow dung and damp rice.
The physical appearance of these fruiting bodies
differed considerably from specimens of the same
species that had grown on naturally occurring
substrates (Figure 3, p. 6 and Figure 51, p. 76).
According to Stamets and Chilton,
Panaeolus cyanescens is a species that does not
fruit without a cover layer. However, this
statement does not seem very plausible,
considering the species can be found, much like
Psilocybe cubensis, growing on top of dung under
Psilocybe bohemica was another species
that fruited on damp rice after two or three
months. These in-vitro specimens also appeared
to be much hardier in comparison to fruiting
bodies collected at a natural location near Sazava,
Bohemia (Czech Republic). The cultivated
specimens even developed two (!) rings, yet these
robust mushrooms did not fruit until after an
exposure to the shock of cold temperatures (see
Figure 44, p. 71).
At about the same time, Gymnopilus
purpuratus fruited on a moist mixture of rice and
saw dust after six to eight weeks (see Figure 43,
p. 71). In this case, however, the cultivated
mushrooms turned out to be sma Mushrooms Growing